10 Tips to Starting as a Freelancer on Fiverr
Freelancing has become an increasingly popular way for individuals to showcase their skills, work on exciting projects, and enjoy the freedom of being their own boss. Earning money online may seem like a dream, but with the freelancer platform Fiverr, it can become a reality. However, it’s important to note that the competition on Fiverr is intense. This article presents seven valuable tips from a successful Fiverr freelancer to help you increase your visibility on the platform and secure your first orders.
In this digital age, earning money on the internet is just one of the many benefits brought about by digitalization and the 21st century. The beauty of it is that you don’t need a physical office, an advanced degree, or a large budget. All you require to build an online income is passion, discipline, and a creative mindset.
That’s why freelancing has become increasingly popular. You can simply open your laptop and embark on your journey. However, in reality, earning extra money online isn’t as easy as it sounds. Before you can make significant progress, you must tackle challenges like client acquisition, effective communication, and job planning.
If you’re determined to start your freelance career and aren’t deterred by these obstacles, you will eventually come across service provider platforms. These platforms function similarly to online marketplaces like Amazon. However, instead of selling physical products for shipping, providers sell their se
Fiverr, one of the leading freelance platforms, offers a vibrant marketplace connecting freelancers with clients from around the world. If you’re ready to embark on your freelancing journey on Fiverr, here are ten valuable tips to help you get started on the right foot and increase your chances of success.
Fiverr: Your Gateway to Freelancer Life
Fiverr has emerged as one of the most popular platforms for freelancers. Since its establishment in Israel in 2010, Fiverr has gained significant traction in North America and Asia. And now, it is steadily becoming more commonplace in Europe. With over 3.8 million active buyers worldwide, Fiverr offers a vast marketplace for freelancers to showcase their skills.
Initially, Fiverr gained its reputation for offering services at low prices. Even today, you can find a wide range of services starting at just five dollars, which explains the platform’s name, “Five(rr).” However, Fiverr has evolved, and now you can also find more expensive offers catering to both individuals and businesses.
If you aspire to be successful on Fiverr and establish a secondary income as a freelancer, there are several key points to consider. The competition on the platform is enormous, and let’s be honest, nothing is more disheartening than setting up your account with great enthusiasm, only to experience days without any incoming orders.
As a seasoned Fiverr copywriter, I have been actively engaged on the platform for quite some time. Throughout my journey, I have encountered valuable successes as well as made mistakes from which you can learn.
1. Define Your Niche
Identify your area of expertise and focus on a specific niche. Specializing in a particular field or skill set will make you stand out among the competition and attract clients who are seeking your specific services.
2. Create an Eye-Catching Profile
Craft a compelling profile that highlights your skills, experience, and achievements. Use a professional photo and write a concise and engaging bio that showcases your expertise and what you can offer to potential clients.
Crafting the Perfect Profile on Fiverr
Your journey on Fiverr begins with your profile, which plays a vital role in attracting potential buyers. During the registration process, you will be asked a few questions about yourself and your services. This is your chance to define how you will be presented on Fiverr.
Let’s start by discussing the components of a well-rounded profile: your profile picture, profile description, and other useful information.
Profile Picture Your profile picture is crucial for creating a professional impression. It will be displayed on your profile page and every offer you create.
Choose an authentic and high-quality portrait photo. Alternatively, consider using a picture that showcases you in action, especially if you offer services like photography. This type of image conveys competence and authenticity. Using a real photo of yourself rather than a logo helps establish a personal and relatable connection with potential clients.
Ensure that your photo is high-resolution, free of pixelation or blurring. Additionally, adhere to Fiverr’s required 1:1 square format, with a minimum width and height of 250 pixels.
Profile Description Your profile description is an opportunity to highlight your skills and provide insight into your personality for potential customers. Keep it concise while addressing the following questions:
- What’s your name?
- How did you get into your field? (e.g., design, photography)
- What do you enjoy most about your work?
- How can your skills benefit someone?
- What values and virtues are important to you in your work? (e.g., perfectionism, precision, punctuality)
Take the time to craft a flowing text that answers these questions. Don’t underestimate the importance of the profile description—it serves as the equivalent of a product description on Amazon, but in this case, you are presenting your services, not a tangible product. Aim for an attention-grabbing description that exudes professionalism and showcases your skills.
Other Useful Information Once your Fiverr gig profile picture and description are in good shape, you can further enhance your Fiverr profile by providing additional information:
- Languages: Specify the languages you speak and your proficiency level. Since many Fiverr buyers are international, having language skills, particularly in English and other European languages, will give you an advantage.
- Completed Tests: Fiverr offers free tests in various fields such as graphic design, marketing, and content writing. Taking these tests and displaying the passed results on your profile can enhance its appeal.
- Linked Accounts: If you have a good reputation on platforms like Facebook, GitHub, or Twitter, linking those accounts can serve as a valuable reference for your services.
- Skills: Define your skills using the predefined titles suggested by Fiverr and indicate your experience level (Beginner, Intermediate, Expert). This helps potential clients gauge your expertise.
- Education: Include any degrees or training programs you have successfully completed.
- Certificates: List relevant certifications, such as vocational training or participation in programs like Google Digital Garage.
By providing comprehensive details in these areas, your Fiverr profile will appear more serious and professional. This, in turn, increases your chances of receiving orders from potential clients who view your profile.
Remember, investing time and effort into creating an appealing and informative profile sets the foundation for success on Fiverr.
Crafting an Effective Gig Title, Photo, and Description on Fiverr
When creating a gig on Fiverr, it’s crucial to pay attention to the gig title, photo, and description to attract potential buyers. Here are some tips to ensure success in each of these areas:
Gig Title: Every gig title on Fiverr should start with the phrase “I will.” Avoid the common mistake of repeating these words twice in the title, as it appears unprofessional. Instead, create a concise and attention-grabbing title that directly addresses the needs of potential clients. Consider the following factors:
- Keep it concise, avoiding excessive length.
- Include a hook or catchword that captures attention.
- Directly address what you offer in the title.
For example, if you specialize in marketing and Facebook Ads, a suitable gig title could be:
“I will create your game-changing Facebook Ads strategy.”
Gig Photo: The gig photo, along with the title, is the first visual impression potential buyers have of your gig. Ensure your gig photo is clear, visually appealing, and designed with a modern touch. Consider the following factors:
- Use short, concise text on the photo.
- Create an eye-catching design that stands out when scrolling through the platform.
- Add elements that authentically connect with your service (e.g., a camera for photography services).
- Use the correct format of 1100 x 740 pixels.
- Avoid clickbait tactics and refrain from copying other users’ photos.
Gig Description: Once potential buyers are enticed by your gig title and photo, the gig description plays a crucial role in converting their interest into orders. Use the gig description to explain why you are the right person for the job. Consider the following factors:
- Avoid presenting giant blocks of text; write concisely and utilize paragraphs.
- Clearly outline the problem you can solve and address the pain points your potential clients may have.
- Explain how you can solve the problem effectively.
- Highlight your promises and key attributes, such as professionalism, reliability, punctuality, diligence, and more.
By adhering to these guidelines, you can create an irresistible gig description. If you find this task challenging, don’t despair. Dedicate a few hours to crafting your description as it holds significant importance for attracting clients and converting interest into orders.
3. Develop a Portfolio
Creating a remarkable portfolio on Fiverr that effectively showcases your best accomplishments is crucial for attracting potential clients and boosting your chances of securing new projects and opportunities. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to construct a powerful Fiverr portfolio:
- Select Your Best Work: Begin by carefully choosing your top projects that best represent your skills and expertise. These should demonstrate a variety of your talents and services to appeal to a broader audience.
- High-Quality Visuals: Ensure that you have high-quality images, videos, or samples for each project you showcase. Clear, crisp visuals make a significant impact and allow potential clients to better understand your work.
- Detailed Project Descriptions: Write detailed descriptions for each project you feature. Explain the project’s objectives, your role, the challenges faced, and how you successfully met the client’s needs. Use engaging language to highlight your problem-solving skills and creativity.
- Client Testimonials: Request endorsements and testimonials from satisfied clients. Include these testimonials alongside the relevant projects to build trust and credibility. Make sure to obtain permission from clients before using their testimonials.
- Certifications and Qualifications: If you have any relevant certifications or qualifications, display them prominently in your portfolio. This adds credibility to your skills and expertise. Mention the institutions or organizations that granted these certifications.
- Organize and Categorize: Organize your portfolio into categories or sections, making it easy for potential clients to navigate and find the services they’re interested in. For instance, you can categorize projects by type (e.g., web design, content writing, graphic design) or industry (e.g., healthcare, technology, fashion).
- Showcase Variety: Highlight your versatility by featuring projects from different niches or industries. This demonstrates your adaptability and ability to work with diverse clients and project types.
- Keep It Updated: Regularly update your portfolio with new projects, testimonials, or certifications. An up-to-date portfolio shows that you’re actively engaged and growing in your field.
- Craft an Engaging Bio: Write a compelling bio that introduces yourself, your skills, and your passion for your work. Let potential clients get to know you and understand what sets you apart from other sellers.
- Optimize for Keywords: Use relevant keywords in your project descriptions and bio to improve your visibility in Fiverr’s search results. Consider what terms potential clients might use to find services like yours.
- Professional Presentation: Ensure that your portfolio looks clean, professional, and well-organized. Consistency in formatting and design can leave a positive impression on visitors.
- Share Portfolio Links: Share your portfolio links in your Fiverr gig descriptions and messages to potential clients. Make it easy for them to access your work.
By following these steps and continually refining your portfolio, you’ll create a strong online presence on Fiverr that will attract clients and help you secure new projects and opportunities.
4. Set Competitive Pricing
Analyzing the market and setting a competitive pricing structure is crucial for success on platforms like Fiverr. Here’s a detailed guide on how to establish your pricing effectively:
- Market Research: Start by researching your specific niche on Fiverr. Look at what other sellers with similar skills and services are charging. Pay attention to the pricing ranges and the services they offer. This will give you a benchmark for your pricing.
- Assess Your Expertise: Consider your level of expertise and experience in your field. If you’re just starting, you may need to initially offer competitive prices to attract clients. As you gain more experience and build a reputation, you can gradually increase your rates.
- Task Complexity: Evaluate the complexity of the tasks you’ll be offering. More complex or specialized services can often justify higher prices. Be transparent with clients about what they can expect for the price they pay.
- Unique Value Proposition: Identify what sets you apart from competitors. Do you have a unique skill or approach? Highlight your unique selling points in your gig description and pricing strategy. Clients are often willing to pay more for specialized expertise.
- Tiered Pricing: Consider offering different pricing tiers for your services. This allows clients to choose the level of service that best suits their needs and budget. Each tier can offer additional features or faster delivery times.
- Start Competitively: When you’re new to Fiverr or a specific niche, it can be beneficial to start with competitive prices. This helps you attract your initial clients and gather reviews. Positive reviews are crucial for building your reputation.
- Incremental Price Increases: As you gain more positive reviews and experience, gradually increase your prices. This should reflect your growing expertise and the added value you bring to clients. Regularly review and adjust your rates.
- Value-Based Pricing: Consider pricing based on the value you provide to clients. If your service can save clients time, money, or solve a significant problem, you can justify higher prices.
- Package Deals: Offer package deals that bundle multiple services together at a discounted rate. This encourages clients to purchase more from you, increasing your overall earnings.
- Regularly Monitor and Adjust: Keep an eye on market trends and competitor pricing. Be willing to adjust your rates as needed to remain competitive and continue attracting clients.
- Experiment and A/B Testing: Fiverr allows you to experiment with different pricing strategies. You can A/B test your gigs with slightly different pricing structures to see what works best for you.
- Communicate Value in Your Gig Description: Use your gig description to clearly communicate the value clients will receive when they hire you. Explain how your services can meet their needs effectively.
Remember that pricing is not static. It should evolve as your skills and reputation grow. By starting competitively, providing exceptional service, and gradually increasing your rates, you can position yourself effectively in the market and build a successful freelance career on Fiverr.
5. Offer Specialized Gig Packages
Creating a range of gig packages with different tiers is an effective way to cater to diverse client needs on platforms like Fiverr. Here’s a template for developing basic, standard, and premium packages:
- Service Description: Provide a concise description of what’s included in this package.
- Price: Set a competitive price for this entry-level package.
- Delivery Timeframe: Specify the estimated delivery time for the basic package.
- Key Features: List the core services or features included in this package.
- Number of Revisions: Mention the number of revisions included, if applicable.
- Service Description: Offer a more comprehensive description of what clients can expect from this package compared to the basic tier.
- Price: Set a moderate price for the standard package that reflects the added value.
- Delivery Timeframe: Specify the estimated delivery time for the standard package, which may be faster than the basic package.
- Key Features: List additional services, benefits, or extras included in this package.
- Number of Revisions: Mention the number of revisions included, which could be more than the basic package.
- Service Description: Provide a detailed and enticing description of the premium package, highlighting its unique advantages.
- Price: Set a higher price for the premium package to justify the enhanced offerings.
- Delivery Timeframe: Specify the fastest delivery time for the premium package, making it attractive for clients seeking urgent services.
- Key Features: Enumerate all services, perks, and bonuses exclusive to this top-tier package.
- Number of Revisions: Mention the generous number of revisions included in the premium package, demonstrating your commitment to client satisfaction.
By offering these versatile package options, clients can choose the one that aligns best with their specific requirements and budget. This approach empowers clients with options while allowing you to showcase the value you can provide at different price points. Be sure to clearly communicate the distinctions between the packages to help clients make informed decisions and enhance their overall satisfaction with your services.
6. Optimize Your Gig Titles and Descriptions
Improving your visibility on Fiverr’s search results is essential for attracting potential clients. Here’s how you can strategically integrate keywords into your gig titles and descriptions to optimize your discoverability:
- Keyword Research: Start by conducting thorough keyword research. Identify trending search terms and phrases that are relevant to your niche and the services you offer. Use keyword research tools or explore Fiverr’s search bar to see what terms are popular in your field.
- Select Targeted Keywords: Choose a set of keywords that accurately describe your services and are commonly searched for by potential clients. These should be terms that people are likely to use when looking for services like yours.
- Incorporate Keywords in Gig Titles: Include your primary targeted keyword(s) in your gig title. Make it clear and concise, while also compelling and enticing to potential clients. Your gig title is one of the first things they see, so it’s crucial to grab their attention.
- Optimize Gig Descriptions: Write a detailed gig description that not only explains your services but also incorporates your chosen keywords naturally. Avoid keyword stuffing, which can negatively impact your gig’s credibility. Instead, focus on providing valuable information while naturally including relevant keywords.
- Highlight Benefits: Emphasize how your services benefit clients in your gig description. Explain how you can solve their problems or fulfill their needs using the keywords you’ve selected. This not only helps with SEO but also appeals to potential clients.
- Use Bullet Points and Subheadings: Break down your gig description into easy-to-read sections with bullet points and subheadings. This makes it more scannable and allows you to insert keywords strategically.
- Tags and Metadata: Take advantage of Fiverr’s tags feature. Select relevant tags that align with your keywords and services. Tags are another way to improve your gig’s visibility in search results.
- Regularly Update: Keep your gig content updated and adapt it as trends in your niche change. This demonstrates to Fiverr’s algorithms that your gig is current and relevant.
- Customer-Centric Approach: Ultimately, while integrating keywords is important for SEO, remember to keep the focus on addressing your clients’ needs and providing a valuable service. Satisfied clients are more likely to leave positive reviews and recommendations, further boosting your gig’s visibility.
- Analyze Performance: Periodically review your gig’s performance metrics to see how well it’s ranking in search results. Adjust your keywords and content accordingly based on the data.
By following these steps and strategically incorporating relevant keywords into your gig titles and descriptions, you can increase your chances of being discovered by potential clients on Fiverr and ultimately grow your freelance business.
7. Deliver High-Quality Work
Maintaining a consistent commitment to delivering exceptional work to your clients is vital for your success as a freelancer on platforms like Fiverr. Here’s why and how you should prioritize client satisfaction and positive reviews:
Client Satisfaction and Reputation Building:
- Consistently providing high-quality work and exceeding client expectations is the foundation for building a strong professional reputation.
- Satisfied clients are more likely to leave positive reviews, which can significantly boost your visibility and credibility on Fiverr.
Repeat Business and Referrals:
- Happy clients are more likely to return for future projects and refer you to others in their network.
- Building long-term relationships with clients can lead to a steady stream of work and opportunities.
- Delivering top-notch work showcases your professionalism and commitment to your craft.
- It sets you apart from competitors and positions you as a trusted expert in your field.
- Clients who are exceptionally satisfied with your services are likely to share their positive experiences with others, both online and offline.
- Word-of-mouth recommendations can be a powerful source of new clients.
Impact on Gig Ranking:
- Fiverr’s algorithm takes client reviews and satisfaction into account when ranking gigs in search results. Positive reviews can boost your gig’s visibility.
Strategies for Exceptional Service:
- Communicate Effectively: Maintain clear and prompt communication with clients. Address their questions and concerns promptly.
- Set Realistic Expectations: Be transparent about what clients can expect in terms of deliverables, timelines, and revisions.
- Consistently Deliver Quality: Ensure that every project you complete is of the highest quality, meeting or exceeding the agreed-upon standards.
- Personalize Your Service: Tailor your services to meet the unique needs of each client. Personalization can leave a lasting positive impression.
- Handle Feedback Gracefully: If a client provides constructive feedback, use it as an opportunity for improvement and growth.
- Meet Deadlines: Always deliver work on or before the agreed-upon deadline to demonstrate reliability.
Ask for Reviews and Feedback:
- Encourage satisfied clients to leave reviews and feedback on your Fiverr profile. A polite request can go a long way in generating positive reviews.
In conclusion, client satisfaction and positive reviews are pivotal to your success as a freelancer on Fiverr. By consistently delivering exceptional work, you can build a strong professional reputation, attract more clients, and enjoy long-term success in your freelance career.
8. Communicate Effectively
Maintaining transparent and timely communication with your clients is a key aspect of providing exceptional service and building lasting client relationships as a freelancer on platforms like Fiverr. Here’s how you can effectively manage communication:
- Respond promptly to client messages and inquiries. Even a brief acknowledgment to let them know you’ve received their message can go a long way in building trust.
Set Clear Expectations:
- From the outset, establish clear expectations regarding communication. Let clients know how often you’ll provide updates, preferred channels of communication, and response times.
- Keep clients informed about the progress of their projects. Provide updates on milestones, completion percentages, or any significant developments. Regular updates demonstrate your commitment to transparency.
- Anticipate questions or concerns that clients may have and address them before they arise. Proactive communication shows that you are attentive to their needs.
Transparency About Challenges:
- If you encounter any challenges or delays, communicate these issues to your clients promptly. Explain the situation, the steps you’re taking to resolve it, and any adjustments to the project timeline.
Use Clear and Professional Language:
- Ensure that your communication is clear, concise, and professional. Avoid jargon or language that could be confusing to clients.
- Pay close attention to your clients’ feedback and requests. Show that you value their input by actively listening and incorporating their feedback when appropriate.
Respect Client Preferences:
- Some clients may prefer email, while others may prefer messaging within the platform. Respect their communication preferences to make the process more convenient for them.
- Always maintain a professional tone and demeanor in your communication. Even in challenging situations, remain courteous and respectful.
- Ensure that you deliver your work within the agreed-upon deadlines. Late deliveries can erode client trust and satisfaction.
Ask for Feedback:
- Encourage clients to provide feedback on your communication and service. This can help you identify areas for improvement and show your commitment to client satisfaction.
- While it’s important to be responsive, also establish boundaries for when you’re available for communication. Clients should understand your working hours and availability.
Effective and transparent communication not only builds trust but also fosters strong, enduring client relationships. Clients are more likely to return to you for future projects and recommend your services to others when they have a positive and reliable communication experience.
9. Promote Your Services
Promoting your services beyond the Fiverr platform is a proactive step to expand your client base and grow your freelance career. Here’s how you can effectively showcase your expertise and attract potential clients:
Utilize Social Media:
- Create professional profiles on platforms like LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram, or Facebook.
- Regularly share updates about your work, industry insights, and highlights from your portfolio.
- Engage with relevant communities and use industry-specific hashtags to reach a wider audience.
- Consider running paid advertising campaigns on social media to target potential clients.
Build a Personal Website:
- Develop a personal website to serve as your online portfolio and point of contact for potential clients.
- Showcase your best work, client testimonials, certifications, and contact information.
- Optimize your website for search engines (SEO) to improve its visibility on search results pages.
Join Professional Networks:
- Join online professional networks and forums related to your industry.
- Participate in discussions, answer questions, and offer insights to establish yourself as an authority in your field.
- Include a link to your Fiverr profile or personal website in your forum signatures.
Create Valuable Content:
- Start a blog, podcast, or YouTube channel related to your niche.
- Share informative and valuable content that demonstrates your expertise and addresses common challenges in your industry.
- Promote your content through social media and encourage engagement.
Networking and Personal Connections:
- Leverage your personal and professional network to spread the word about your services.
- Attend industry events, conferences, and meetups to connect with potential clients and collaborators.
- Ask for referrals from satisfied clients and offer incentives for successful referrals.
- Build an email list of potential clients and interested parties.
- Send out newsletters and updates about your services, new projects, and industry insights.
- Include calls to action that encourage recipients to inquire about your services.
Collaborate with Influencers:
- Identify influencers or thought leaders in your niche and explore collaboration opportunities.
- Collaborative projects or endorsements from influencers can boost your credibility and visibility.
- Consider running targeted online advertising campaigns on platforms like Google Ads or Facebook Ads to reach potential clients.
- Use compelling ad copy and visuals to attract clicks and conversions.
Monitor and Adapt:
- Continually assess the effectiveness of your promotional efforts by tracking key metrics like website traffic, social media engagement, and lead generation.
- Adjust your strategies based on data to maximize your promotional impact.
Brand Consistency: – Maintain a consistent personal brand across all promotional channels. Use a unified brand image, tone, and messaging.
By strategically promoting your services beyond Fiverr, you can increase your visibility, showcase your expertise, and attract a broader client base. Cultivating a strong personal brand and actively engaging with your target audience will contribute to your professional growth and long-term success as a freelancer.
10. Continuously Improve and Evolve
Staying up-to-date with the latest trends and advancements in your field is crucial for maintaining your relevance and credibility as a freelancer. Here’s how you can actively enhance your professional expertise:
- Dedicate time to ongoing learning and skill development. Invest in courses, workshops, and online tutorials that are relevant to your niche.
- Explore educational platforms like Coursera, edX, Udemy, or industry-specific platforms to access quality courses.
Attend Conferences and Workshops:
- Participate in industry-related conferences, workshops, and seminars to gain insights into emerging trends and network with professionals.
- Conferences often feature keynote speakers and panel discussions on cutting-edge topics.
Read Industry Publications:
- Stay informed by regularly reading industry journals, magazines, blogs, and news websites.
- Subscribe to newsletters and follow industry influencers on social media to receive timely updates.
Join Professional Associations:
- Become a member of professional associations or organizations related to your field.
- These groups often provide access to valuable resources, networking opportunities, and educational events.
Online Forums and Communities:
- Participate in online forums, LinkedIn groups, and specialized communities where professionals discuss industry trends and share knowledge.
- Engage in discussions and ask questions to learn from others.
- Attend networking events, both online and in-person, to connect with peers, mentors, and potential collaborators.
- Networking can lead to valuable insights and collaborative opportunities.
Experiment and Apply Learning:
- Apply what you learn in your projects to gain practical experience.
- Experiment with new techniques, tools, or approaches to stay ahead of the curve.
- Request feedback from clients and colleagues to identify areas for improvement.
- Constructive feedback can help you refine your skills and approach.
- Allocate dedicated time for learning and skill development in your schedule. Consistency is key to continuous improvement.
Adaptability: – Be open to change and willing to adapt to shifts within your industry. Embrace new technologies and methodologies that can enhance your work.
Mentorship: – Seek out mentors or industry experts who can provide guidance and mentorship. Learning from experienced professionals can accelerate your growth.
Document Your Progress: – Keep a record of the courses you’ve completed, certifications earned, and skills acquired. This documentation can serve as a portfolio of your professional development.
By proactively engaging in continuous learning and professional development, you position yourself as a dependable and well-informed freelancer. Clients are more likely to trust and value your services when they see your commitment to staying current and delivering exceptional results based on the latest industry knowledge and trends.
Embarking on a freelancing journey on Fiverr offers a gratifying and enriching experience. With these ten guidelines, you’ll be fully prepared to navigate the freelance landscape and build a thriving career on the platform. Keep in mind the importance of defining your specialization, crafting an engaging profile, building a robust portfolio, setting competitive rates, optimizing your gig listings, consistently delivering excellence, maintaining effective communication, promoting your services, and continually advancing your skills. Embrace the possibilities that freelancing on Fiverr presents, and relish the adventure of self-employment.